Although there are many types of outdoor sports, professional outdoor sports clothing such as impact suits are mainly for alpine sports such as mountaineering and skiing. In addition to the physical abilities and skills of the participants, the field sports also requires field clothing that can be used to harsh weather and complex geographical environment to ensure the personal safety of the athletes.
Although there is no essential difference between outdoor sportswear and home clothing, due to the two characteristics of outdoor and sports, the requirements for clothing are relatively strict and strict: outdoor sports generate a lot of heat and evaporate sweat, which requires clothing to have heat dissipation and ventilation functions. Outstanding in the wild, it is inevitable to encounter wind, rain, snow and fog. Clothing must have a certain waterproof function. Outdoor sports want to reduce the load as much as possible. The clothing should be as simple as possible. The field is windy, the mountains are cold, and the requirements for wind and heat preservation are high. High stainability requirements.
Climbing and wearing forests for field work, clothing requires outstanding stretch resistance and tear resistance... The requirements for these functions are very stringent from the perspective of textile skills, and many indicators are in conflict with each other. No single natural or chemical fiber can meet these requirements. It can only achieve these functions as much as possible through the compounding of multiple fibers and multi-channel chemical cleaning.
Although the warmth retention is closely related to the thickness of the fabric, the outdoor sports do not allow clothing to be too heavy, so it is necessary to keep warm and simple to meet the special requirements of outdoor sports clothing. The most common method is to add special ceramic powders containing chromium oxide, magnesium oxide, zirconia, etc. to the spinning solution of synthetic fibers such as polyester, especially nano-level fine ceramic powder, which can absorb visible light such as sunlight and convert it into Thermal energy can also reflect the far infrared rays emitted by the human body itself, so it has excellent heat preservation and heat storage functions. Of course, the far-infrared ceramic powder, adhesive and crosslinking agent can be formulated into a finishing agent, and the woven fabric can be coated, and then dried and baked to make the nano ceramic powder adhere to the fabric surface and yarn between. This cleaning agent emits far-infrared rays with a wavelength of 8 to 14 μm. It also has health functions such as antibacterial, deodorization, and blood circulation.
In addition, according to the principle of bionics, referring to the structure of polar bear hair, the polyester fiber is made into a porous and hollow shape, so that the fiber contains a lot of non-flowing air, and the outside is made into a spirally curved shape to maintain the fluffiness, which can ensure the lightness of the texture. Bottom has an outstanding thermal insulation effect. Of course, making clothes and even fabrics into double or even three layers to increase the non-circulating air layer is also one of the most traditional ways to keep warm.
Waterproof and moisture permeability
Sports will emit a lot of sweat, and the wild will inevitably suffer from wind and rain. This in itself is a pair of opposites: it must be able to prevent rain and snow from getting wet, and it must be able to discharge the sweat from the body in time. Fortunately, the human body emits water vapor in a single-molecule state, while rain and snow are liquid droplets in a collective state, and their sizes are very different. In addition, liquid water has a characteristic called surface tension, which is also the characteristic of getting closer to its own volume. The water we see on the lotus leaf is granular water droplets rather than flat water stains. Because the lotus leaf has a layer of waxy feathers on the surface, water droplets cannot be dispersed and penetrated on this waxy feather due to the effect of surface tension.
If you dissolve a drop of detergent or washing powder into water droplets, since the detergent can greatly reduce the surface tension of the liquid, the water droplets will immediately collapse and spread on the lotus leaf. Waterproof and moisture-permeable clothing is the use of the surface tension characteristics of water, and the fabric is coated with a layer of PTFE (the same chemical composition as the "King of Corrosion Resistant Fiber" PTFE, but the physical structure is different) to enhance the fabric appearance The tensile chemical coating makes the water droplets as tight as possible without spreading out, soaking the fabric surface, and then unable to penetrate the pores in the fabric arrangement. At the same time, this coating is porous, and the water vapor in the monomolecular state can smoothly pass through the capillary channels between the fibers to the surface of the fabric.
After a large amount of exercise, if you stop to rest in the wild, it is possible that water droplets will form on the inner layer of the clothes due to the low temperature outside and the inability of sweat to escape in time, which will make people feel uncomfortable. This is what is called "Condensation" phenomenon. There is a special moisture permeability cleaning process called "low condensation", which uses polyurethane (PU) and hydrophilic nano-ceramic powder to coat the fabric, which can be absorbed when the body evaporates a lot of sweat. Excessive sweat vapor prevents the water vapor inside the clothes from exceeding the full vapor pressure and turning into water droplets.
In addition to finding ways from fibers and coatings, the fabric structure can also absorb moisture as much as possible. For example, a two-layer structure is used. The inner layer of the body is made of hydrophobic fibers, and the outer layer is made of hydrophilic fibers, so that sweat can rely on the capillary effect to transfer from the skin to the inner fibers, and the outer layer is hydrophilic. The binding force between the fiber and the water molecule is stronger than that of the inner hydrophobic fiber, and the water molecules are transferred from the inner layer to the outer layer of the fabric again, and finally emitted into the atmosphere.
Antibacterial and deodorant
Due to the characteristics of exercise, sweat and sebaceous glands secrete a lot. In the wild conditions, it is impossible to change clothes frequently. Under suitable temperature and humidity environment, microorganisms will multiply, causing unsightly smells and itching sensations on people. Therefore, the formal outdoor sportswear is cleaned with antibacterial and deodorant chemicals. The way to clean up is generally to fix the organic quaternary amine type, imidazoline type surface active agent with sterilization effect or heavy metal ions such as silver and copper on the fiber through resin and cross-linking agent to make it have certain washing resistance.
Of course, an important criterion for choosing a sterilant must be non-toxic or low-toxic, otherwise it will be the last resort. In recent years, Japan has made a lot of explorations in the research of natural antibacterial cleansing agents. For example, the use of aloe, mugwort, eucalyptus, rose and other aromatic oil extracts with sterilizing effects are coated in porous organic microcapsules or The porous ceramic powder adheres to the fabric and is cross-linked and fixed with resin. After friction, backlog and other mechanical effects, the sterilant is slowly released to achieve the purpose of durable antibacterial cleaning. This kind of natural antibacterial agent is not only non-toxic and harmless, but also has certain health care functions. It should be the development direction of antibacterial cleaning.
However, due to the limited means of fixing antibacterial agents, the washing resistance of antibacterial agents is not good. The antibacterial function of the antibacterial agent decreases every time it is washed. Generally, it disappears completely after dozens of times. The Dow Corning AEGIS anti-mildew and antibacterial agent uses molecular bonding to spread the eighteen long carbon chains evenly on the surface of the fabric, and combine them with the fabric fibers. Afterwards, they rely on physical effects for sterilization, which is different from other chemical effects. Sterilize to achieve permanent antibacterial effect.
Anti-fouling and easy decontamination
Wilderness sports often walk through the muddy and wet mountains and forests. It is inevitable to wipe the clothes. This requires the appearance of the clothes to be as easy as possible not to be stained by stains, and once they are stained, they must be easily scrubbed and removed. Changing the appearance function of the fiber greatly increases the surface tension of the fabric, making it difficult for oil and other stains to penetrate into the fabric. Slight stains can be removed by wiping with a damp cloth, and heavier stains are also easy to clean. The anti-fouling cleaning can not only avoid oil pollution, but also has the function of waterproof and moisture-permeable. It is generally called "three-proof cleaning" (water repellent, oil repellent, and antifouling), which is a more useful and useful advanced chemical cleaning method. It is often used on the outer layer of clothing and the fabrics of backpacks, shoes and tents.
Anti-static and anti-radiation
Mountain climbing is the core content of outdoor sports. In addition to the original dense forest, the high and high altitude areas above 3000 meters above sea level are generally boring due to low air pressure and easy volatilization of water. However, the outdoor clothing is basically made of chemical fiber fabrics, so static electricity The problem is more outstanding. The hazards of static electricity are generally manifested as clothes fuzzing and pilling, easy to be infected with dust and dirt, electric shock and sticky feeling near the skin, etc. If you carry sophisticated electronic instruments such as electronic compasses, altitude meters, GPS navigators, etc., you may be disturbed by static electricity in your clothes and make mistakes, resulting in serious consequences.
Any object rubbing against each other may cause static electricity, but only boring insulating objects can accumulate static electricity and cause harm. Therefore, the best antistatic fabric is of course woven from natural fibers, but as mentioned earlier, pure natural fibers are difficult to meet the special requirements of outdoor sports, and even natural fibers will suffer from lack of water molecules in a very boring environment. And static electricity occurs.
There are two main ways to clean up the fabric: one is to woven metal wires into the fabric to make a conductive fabric (also electromagnetic wave shielding fabric and anti-radiation fabric), and conduct the static electricity generated by friction to the outside in time. go with. However, this kind of fabric is not suitable for sportswear, mainly because it is not soft and comfortable. Another way is to use block polyethers, polyacrylates and other antistatic agents with moisture absorption effect, and coat the surface of the fabric with a chemical film that can absorb water molecules, so that the surface of the fabric forms a continuous conductive water film , Dissipate the static electricity.
Due to the relatively thinning of the atmosphere in high-altitude areas, the isolation and filtering effect of ultraviolet rays is greatly reduced, and the intensity of ultraviolet rays is much higher than that in low-altitude areas. Ultraviolet rays can effectively promote the production of vitamins and have a sterilization effect, but excessively strong irradiation can cause damage to human skin. The penetrating power of ultraviolet rays is very strong, and general fiber fabrics cannot completely shield its radiation. Use resins for ultraviolet shielding agents such as nano-scale inorganic titanium dioxide (TiO2) and nano-zinc oxide (ZnO) and organic ultraviolet absorbers such as salicylic acid, cyanoacrylate, benzophenone, benzotriazole, etc. The method of cross-linking is fixed on the fabric, which can play a certain anti-radiation effect.
It can be said that the field sportswear represents the latest cutting-edge technology in the development of today's textile science. This is also an important reason why a seemingly humble mountaineering suit and impact pants are often hundreds of thousands or even thousands of dollars (of course, it is not ruled out Factors such as brand value and functional style). Although the price is indeed not low, a set of professional outdoor sportswear that integrates functions such as windproof, breathable, moistureproof, warmth, and radiation protection may sometimes have the same meaning as life for a climber! However, due to the diversity, complexity and unpredictability of field sports, there may be many completely different requirements for the function of clothing due to different environments and exercise methods. Therefore, in terms of current scientific skills, field sports clothing The overall function is still difficult to be exquisite and perfect