Although the types of field sports are very wide, professional field sports clothing such as assault suits are mainly for mountain climbing, skiing and other alpine sports. In addition to the physical abilities and skills of the participants, the field sports also requires field clothing that can be used to the harsh climate and the chaotic geographical environment to ensure the personal safety of the athletes.
Although there is no essential difference between outdoor sportswear and home clothing, because of the two characteristics of outdoor and sports, the requirements for clothing are relatively strict and strict: outdoor sports generate a lot of heat and sweat, which requires clothing to have heat dissipation and ventilation functions. A good field will inevitably encounter wind, rain, snow and fog. Clothing must have a certain waterproof function. Outdoor sports are expected to reduce the load as much as possible. Clothing should be as light as possible. The outdoor wind is strong, the mountains are cold, and the windproof and warm function requirements are high. The outdoor washing conditions are limited. High requirements for deodorization and stain resistance.
Climbing and wearing forests for field work, clothing requires good stretch resistance and tear resistance... These functional requirements are very stringent from the perspective of textile skills, and many indicators are in conflict with each other. No single natural or chemical fiber can meet these requirements. It can only achieve these functions as much as possible through the compounding of multiple fibers and multi-channel chemical cleaning.
Although the warmth retention is closely related to the thickness of the fabric, the outdoor sports do not allow clothing to be too heavy, so it must be warm and light to meet the special requirements of outdoor sports clothing. The most common method is to add special ceramic powder containing chromium oxide, magnesium oxide, zirconium oxide, etc. to the spinning solution of synthetic fibers such as polyester, especially nano-level fine ceramic powder, which can absorb visible light such as sunlight and convert it into Thermal energy can also reflect the far infrared rays emitted by the human body itself, so it has excellent heat preservation and heat storage functions.
Of course, the far-infrared ceramic powder, adhesive and crosslinking agent can be formulated into a finishing agent, and the woven fabric can be coated, and then dried and baked to make the nano ceramic powder adhere to the fabric surface and yarn between. This cleaning agent emits far-infrared rays with a wavelength of 8 to 14 μm. It also has health functions such as antibacterial, deodorization, and blood circulation.
In addition, according to the principle of bionics, referring to the structure of polar bear hair, the polyester fiber is made into a porous hollow shape, so that the fiber contains a lot of non-circulating air, and the outside is made into a spiral and crimp shape to maintain the looseness, which can guarantee the lightness of the texture. Play a good thermal insulation effect. Of course, making clothes and even fabrics into double or even three layers to increase the non-circulating air layer is also one of the most traditional ways to keep warm.
Waterproof and moisture permeability:
Sports will emit a lot of sweat, and the wild will inevitably encounter wind and rain. This in itself is a contradiction: it must be able to prevent rain and snow from getting wet, and it must be able to discharge the sweat from the body in time. Fortunately, the human body emits water vapor in a single-molecule state, while rain and snow are liquid droplets in a collective state, and their sizes are very different. In addition, liquid water has a characteristic called surface tension, which is also the characteristic of getting closer to its own volume. The water we see on the lotus leaf is granular water droplets rather than flat water stains. The reason is that there is a layer of waxy feathers on the surface of the lotus leaf, and the water droplets cannot spread and soak on the waxy feathers because of the surface tension.
If you dissolve a drop of detergent or washing powder into water drops, because the detergent can greatly reduce the surface tension of the liquid, the water drops will immediately disintegrate and spread on the lotus leaf. Waterproof and moisture-permeable clothing is the use of the surface tension characteristics of water, and the fabric is coated with a layer of PTFE (the same chemical composition as the "King of Corrosion Resistant Fiber" PTFE, but the physical structure is different) to enhance the fabric appearance The tensile chemical coating makes the water droplets as tight as possible without spreading out, soaking the fabric surface, and then unable to penetrate the pores in the fabric arrangement. At the same time, this coating is porous, and the water vapor in the monomolecular state can smoothly pass through the capillary channels between the fibers and send out to the surface of the fabric.
If you stop to rest in the wild after a large amount of exercise, it is possible that water droplets will form on the inner layer of the clothes because the outside temperature is low and the sweat cannot escape in time, which makes people feel very uncomfortable. This is the so-called "Condensation" phenomenon. There is a special moisture-permeable cleaning process called "low condensation", which uses polyurethane (PU) and hydrophilic nano-ceramic powder to coat the fabric, which can absorb a lot of sweat from the body. More sweat vapor, and then avoid the phenomenon that the water vapor inside the clothes exceeds the saturated vapor pressure and turns into water droplets.
In addition to finding ways from fibers and coatings, the fabric structure can also absorb moisture as much as possible. For example, a two-layer structure is used, the inner layer of the body is made of hydrophobic fibers, and the outer layer is made of hydrophilic fibers, so that sweat can rely on capillary action to transfer from the skin to the inner fibers, and the outer layer is hydrophilic. The binding force between the fiber and the water molecule is stronger than that of the inner hydrophobic fiber, and the water molecules are transferred from the inner layer to the outer layer of the fabric again, and finally emitted into the atmosphere.
Antibacterial and deodorant:
Because of the characteristics of exercise, sweat and sebaceous glands are excreted. In the wild conditions, it is not possible to change clothes frequently. Under suitable temperature and humidity, microorganisms will multiply, causing unsightly odors and itching sensations. Therefore, the formal outdoor sportswear is cleaned with antibacterial and deodorant chemicals. The way to clean up is generally to fix the sterilizing organic quaternary amine type, imidazoline type surface active agent or heavy metal ions such as silver and copper on the fiber through resin and cross-linking agent to make it have certain washing resistance. Of course, an important criterion for the selection of sterilants must be non-toxic or low-toxic, otherwise it will be the last resort.
In recent years, Japan has made a lot of research on the research of natural antibacterial cleansing agents. For example, the use of sterilizing aromatic oil extracts such as aloe, mugwort, eucalyptus, and rose, is coated in porous organic microcapsules or The porous ceramic powder adheres to the fabric and is cross-linked and fixed by resin. After mechanical action such as conflict and backlog, the sterilant is slowly released to achieve the purpose of durable antibacterial cleaning. This type of natural antibacterial agent is not only non-toxic and harmless, but also has certain health care functions. It should be the development direction of antibacterial cleaning. However, because the methods of fixing antibacterial agents are very limited now, the washing resistance of antibacterial agents is not good, and the antibacterial function of the antibacterial agent decreases every time after washing, and it disappears completely after dozens of times.
U.S. Dow Corning AEGIS anti-mold and antibacterial agent uses molecular bonding method to evenly distribute eighteen long carbon chains on the surface of the fabric, combine them with the fabric fibers, and then rely on physical effects for sterilization, which is different from other chemical effects. Sterilize to achieve permanent antibacterial effect.
Anti-fouling and easy decontamination:
Wilderness sports often walk in the muddy and wet mountains and forests. It is inevitable that clothes are dirty. This requires the appearance of clothing to be as easy as possible to be stained by stains, and once it is stained, it must be easy to wash and remove. Changing the appearance function of the fiber greatly increases the surface tension of the fabric, making it difficult for oil and other stains to penetrate into the fabric. Light stains can be removed by wiping with a damp cloth, and heavier stains are also easy to clean.
The anti-fouling cleaning can not only prevent oil pollution, but also has the function of waterproof and moisture-permeable. It is generally called "three-proof cleaning" (water repellent, oil repellent, and anti-fouling), which is attributed to the more practical and effective high-end chemical cleaning methods. It is often used on the outer layer of clothing and the fabric of backpacks, shoes and tents.
Anti-static and anti-radiation packing:
Mountain climbing is the core content of field sports. In addition to the original dense forests, the high and high altitude areas above 3000 meters above sea level are generally boring because of low air pressure and easy volatilization of water. The field clothing is basically made of chemical fiber fabrics, so static electricity The problem is more outstanding. The damage of static electricity is generally manifested as the clothes are easy to fuzz and pilling, easy to be contaminated with dust and dirt, electric shock and sticky feeling close to the skin, etc. If you carry sophisticated electronic instruments such as electronic compasses, altitude meters, GPS navigators, etc., you may be disturbed by static electricity in your clothes and cause faults, which will bring serious consequences.
Any object that conflicts with each other may generate static electricity, but only boring insulating objects can accumulate static electricity and cause damage. Therefore, the best antistatic fabric is of course woven from natural fibers, but as mentioned above, pure natural fibers are difficult to meet the special requirements of outdoor sports, and even natural fibers, in a very boring environment, will suffer from lack of water molecules. And generate static electricity.
There are two main ways to clean up the fabric against static electricity: one is to simply weave metal wires into the fabric to make a conductive fabric (also electromagnetic wave shielding fabric and anti-radiation fabric), and conduct the static electricity generated by the conflict to the outside world in time. . However, this kind of fabric is not suitable for sportswear, mainly because it is not soft and comfortable. Another method is to select block polyethers, polyacrylates and other antistatic agents with hygroscopic effect, and coat the surface of the fabric with a chemical film that can absorb water molecules to form a continuous conductive water film on the surface of the fabric. , Dissipate the static electricity.
Because the atmosphere is relatively thin in high altitude areas, the blocking and filtering effect of ultraviolet rays is greatly reduced, and the intensity of ultraviolet rays is much higher than that in low altitude areas. Ultraviolet rays can effectively promote the production of vitamins and have a sterilizing effect, but strong exposure to excessive heat can cause damage to human skin. The penetrating power of ultraviolet rays is very strong, and general fiber fabrics cannot completely shield its radiation. Use resins for ultraviolet shielding agents such as nano-scale inorganic titanium dioxide (TiO2) and nano-zinc oxide (ZnO) and organic ultraviolet absorbers such as salicylic acid, cyanoacrylate, benzophenone, benzotriazole, etc. The method of cross-linking fixed on the fabric can play a certain role in radiation protection.
It can be said that the field sportswear represents the latest cutting-edge technology in the development of textile science. This is also an important reason why a seemingly humble mountain climbing suit and trousers are often hundreds of thousands or even thousands of dollars (of course, it is not ruled out Factors such as brand value and functional style). Although the price is indeed not low, a set of professional outdoor sportswear that integrates functions such as windproof, breathable, moistureproof, warmth, and radiation protection may sometimes have the same meaning as life for a mountain climber!
However, due to the diversity, clutter and unpredictability of field sports, there may be many completely different requirements for the function of clothing due to different environments and exercise methods. Therefore, in terms of current scientific skills, field sports clothing The overall function of it is still difficult to achieve everything and nothing.